Thursday, January 30, 2020

An Examination of Racism in the Deep South of America Essay Example for Free

An Examination of Racism in the Deep South of America Essay An Examination of Racism in the Deep South of America From the1930s to the 1960s through a variety of texts. Race: a group of persons having a common ancestor family, kindred people, genus, species, breed, variety, or class of persons That is what the dictionary says, so why so much hatred, politics and fuss The Anglo American slave trade, started in the 16th century when the first Hispanic people settled in Mexico and the Caribbean. From there, the other Europeans who migrated took black Africans to work on their cotton and tobacco plantations. This started the very wealthy Slave Triangle in which many Captains sought profit. The ships would sail empty from England, Spain, France or Portugal to the African countries to catch slaves. After filling their holds with human cargo they would set sail for the Caribbean. Once there, the Captains sold the slaves to the dealers in return for cotton or tobacco, which they would sell for a large profit back at home. These slaves were then the full property of their masters and he or she could do anything they liked to them and treat them in anyway they wanted to. One example of this is an advertisement in the Royal Gazette (Kingston Jamaica) saying; Runaway, about 15 months ago a Negro man of the Mungola country named Jamaica also about two months ago, two Negro men named James and Sambo a reward of i 10 for Jamaica and a Half Joe each for James and Sambo Also stolen or strayed a Bright Bay Northward HORSE also a small JACK ASS a reward of a pistole will be given for each This shows that their masters treated the slaves with about as much respect and sense of belonging as a horse or donkey. Such disregard upset many Americans and so some spoke out against it. In 1861, because they would not agree to abolish slavery, the Southern States left the Union of American States. This created even more outcry until Abraham Lincoln , the then President of America declared war on the Southern States. The American Civil War was fought between 1861 and 1865. It destroyed most of the agricultural land in the South and drained it of its wealth. After the Civil War the United States of America was formed. During the next 5 10 years the Northerners set in place a number of laws giving back human and civil rights to the black people. Initially this idea worked, but due to the hostility of the Southern confederacy these changes eventually failed. The Yankees that is the Northern Army and Governors called the changes they made reconstruction, but after they left, using a number of loopholes in the Law, the Southern Governors set in place many new rules. These were called the Jim Crow Laws and they segregated the black former slaves from the white people completely, thereby undoing all the good work done by the Northerners. The following time of white supremacy was called redemption This time of redemption and segregation was a hard time for the blacks; 1) Their voting rights were taken away 2) The money for black schools was diverted to white education. 3) There were separate buses for coloured and white people, or no bus at all. An example of this is given in the Novel Roll of Thunder where the Logan children have to dive into a ditch up to their chests, or in the case of Little Man- swim, to avoid the oncoming Jefferson Davies school bus and its ruthless driver. It was around this time when the Depression hit America. The South was hit especially hard and the price of cotton fell dramatically. This downturn in the economy created serious hardship for the majority of people, both black and white. The arrival of new technology added to the hardship as cotton looms and ploughs cut work loads, making one person and one tractor able to do the work of eight men and eight mules. Publicity of the suffering of the South created Aid and money from Northern Citizens, but due to the amount of corruption the blacks did not benefit from this. Some workers, both black and white, joined together to fight for more money and better working conditions, and as a result the rich landowners and vigilantly race hate groups like the Ku Klux Klan used violence to break up their protests and demonstrations. Racism comes in three forms Verbal, Physical and Institutional Verbal Why did the white people feel that they could say something offensive and why did they even say it in the first place? In the Novel Roll of Thunder, Little Man receives a book from his teacher for the new term. He eagerly thumbs through it but to his horror finds a form that reads: Date Condition Owner Sept 1922 Good White Sept 1928 Good White Sept 1930 Average White Sept 1933 Very Poor Nigra The term nigra is very offensive and as a result the naive boy protests and gives the book back. His teacher, Mrs Crocker simply replies Well, thats what you are! . This shows that even teachers can happily pass off insulting words just because a coloured child had owned a book. A further insult was that the book was damaged, which was untrue. Another form of verbal abuse is when in the same book, a mob attempts to lynch TJ, and they decide to try and hang Pa Logan and Mr. Morrison, the human giant I say, what we oughtta do is take him down the road an take care of that big black giant of a nigger at the same time! And why not that boy he working for too? The boy they are referring to Pa Logan, a fully-grown, independent man. This is from the time of slavery, where the masters could speak to their slaves as they wished.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

kodak history :: essays research papers

On July 12, 1854 in the village of Waterville Maria Kilbourn and George Washington Eastman had a child that would change the way the world took pictures forever, and that child was George Eastman. When George was five his father sold the family nursery business and moved to Rochester where he founded the Eastman Commercial College. Shortly thereafter George’s father died and the College failed leaving George and his mother in financial despair. So because of family circumstances George had to drop out of school at the age of fourteen and find a job. His first job was as a messenger boy with an insurance firm, which paid three dollars a week. A year later George got a job as an office boy for a different insurance firm. There through his own hard work, dedication, and initiative he soon took charge of filing policies and even began to write them. With these new responsibilities his pay rose to five dollars a week. After four years of working at the insurance firm he was hired as a junior clerk at Rochester Savings Bank where his current salary of five dollars a week tripled to more than fifteen dollars a week. Four years later George had planned to take a vacation to Santo Domingo. When a colleague of his suggested that he make a record of the trip George went out and purchased a photographic outfit with all the paraphernalia of the wet plate days. This was to be his first endeavor into the photographic world. At the time cameras were as big as today’s microwave ovens and needed a heavy tripod to support them. He also had purchased a tent to develop the pictures before the glass plates dried out. The supplies needed consisted of glass tanks, a heavy plate holder and a jug of water the entire outfit â€Å"was a pack-horse load† as George described it. Learning how to use his new equipment cost him five dollars. After all this George never made his Santo Domingo trip but became completely engrossed in photography and seeking out ways to simpl ify the process. George had heard that British photographers were using their own gelatin emulsions that remained sensitive after they were dry and could be exposed at your leisure. Using a formula he got from a British magazine for emulsions, George began making his own. He continued to work at the bank during the day while experimenting in his mother’s kitchen in the evenings.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

To What Extent Would It Be Fair to Say That Mass Media Had No Choice but to Report What the Government Wanted It to Report During the Falklands War?

Page 103 To what extent would it be fair to say that mass media had no choice but to report what the government wanted it to report during the Falklands war? Using evidence from sources 3a, 3b, 3c and 3d, it can be seen that there is indication which shows that the government did in fact control what was reported in the Falklands war. It can be seen that the government did make it difficult to report events from the war, which is presented in the fact that there was no photos in the first 55">Government Regulation on Media in AmericaThis long delay in media involvement was controlled by the government, clearly expressing the influence they had. This idea is further backed up in source 3c, which compared the Falklands war (1982) to the ‘Crimean War’ (1853) while concerning the topic of media involvement. However, even though it is clear to say the government controlled the media involving the Falklands war, did it result in the mass media only reporting what the government wanted it to, or not?There is clear evidence which suggests that mass media had no choice but to report what the government wanted it to, but to what extent was this? As can be seen in source 3d, the government clearly, and to a heavy extent wanted to control what was reported in the media involving the Falklands war, this can be seen in ‘the remoteness of this war†¦ facilitated media management’. This suggests that the location enabled the government to easily control what was being portrayed in the media.This idea in source 3d is backed up through my own knowledge which proposes that the location made it difficult to report events of the war, as the geographical location and technological collimations disadvantaged reporters. It strongly suggests that the media had no choice but to report what the government wanted it to in the concluding sentence, which states ‘the British government†¦ practised de ception and media manipulation’. Also, it must be accounted that source 3d contains strong credibility. Written in 2009, it allows the writers to have a clear overview of the whole war.Also, being established historians, the writer would possess objectiveness, which results in a more reliable judgement. Using source 3c in conjunction with source 3d brings a strong extent to the idea mass media was controlled by the government. This is because source 3c, written by Julian Barnes explicitly suggests that the government hid the truth from the public, meaning they controlled what was seen in the media, this idea is seen frequently in source 3c. The live reporting of ITV, of the deportation of the British navy was ‘the last sunny, honest, unspun images’ seen in the public eye.Also, as seen in source 3c, information was frequently leaked from the government- whether good or bad. This can be supported by my own knowledge, which showed that the information of the reposit ion of south Georgia wasn’t received by the British audience suggests that both good and bad news was hidden from the public, or leaked via the government, still showing their involvement. However, it must be remembered, that the source was written in 2002, the 20th anniversary of the Falklands war, in The Guardian.The guardian is a left wing newspaper, meaning they will support the labour government. Seeing as Margaret Thatcher, the prime minister in office during the Falklands War was conservative, it would seem that he would be subjective towards the labour government, and be critical of the conservative role. Using source 3b along with 3d and 3c brings significant strength to the idea, that the government controlled the media. This can be seen in the idea only 16 reporters were taken on the Taskforce vessel to make it easier for the government to manipulate their reporting.However, the reporters are also described as ‘gung ho’ in source 3b, this would suggest they were involved in the spirit of war, and were reporting the war through a patriotic view, which wasn’t inflicted by the government, suggesting maybe the media wasn’t wholly controlled by the government. There is evidence which does in fact suggest that the Media could report what it wanted to during the Falklands war presented in the sources. In source 3a there is a slight disagreement to the fact that media could report what it wanted to.It can be seen that even though the original headlines of, ‘gotcha’ seem to show chauvinistic views, towards Argentine death, the headlines were then quickly changed to ‘Did 1200 Argies drown’? From my own knowledge I can add that the use of tabloid language, such as ‘Argies’ would have dehumanised the War, which would have been welcomed by the government, but not inflicted by them. This suggests that the Media did have a choice in what to report, but may have reported certain things to plea se the government.The idea that the Sun soon changed the original cover implies that the media was able to self-censor its own exuberance, contrasting the suggested governmental influence regarding the report of the War. Source 3b also suggests that the media could report what it wanted. This is shown in the way Patrick Bishop, a newspaper reporter from the Falklands War suggests how they weren’t influenced by any ‘stimulus from the military’. This implies that the reporters could infact report what they want.However, it does suggest in the source, that if a reporter wasn’t feeling ‘patriotic or positive’, the military would have to ‘lean on them’. I can add with my own knowledge that all media representatives were controlled by the armed forces that censored reports, and were keen for no negative broadcasting. This idea suggests that maybe there were some pressures faced by the reporters to report patriotic and celebrative views from the war. It must be remembered that the source has high credibility, as it was published in 1982 it has the positive of hindsight and can weight up information from the whole of the war.Also, being from the journalist Patrick Bishop, who was there at the time, he is more likely to be representative of the whole truth. In conclusion, to question how extensive the government was in regulating the reporting of the Falklwands war, it can be seen, by using the sources that the government had a high controllability involving the mass media coverage. This idea is commonly presented in the sources. However, it must be remembered, that in some circumstances the government had a limited control on what the mass media published about the Falklands War and what was reported from there.

Monday, January 6, 2020

The First Black President, The World s Best Golfer, Or...

Introduction. The first black president, the world’s best golfer, or twins that we grew up watching; Barack Obama, Tiger Woods, Tia and Tamera Mowry, besides from being in the light of superstardom, they are each a child of a interracial marriage. In the 21st century there are approximately 1.6 million interracial relationships or interethnic marriages, with the marriages making up 3% (Troy, Lewis-Smith, Laurenceau, 2006). Interracial relationships over generations have changed from the way society has viewed them. As early as the 1600’s legislation has been banning black and white interracial marriages, and this law has stayed in place until 1967, and Alabama being the last place to maintain the law until 2000 (Troy, Lewis-Smith, Laurenceau, 2006).Years ago white women and black men were severely punished for engaging in sexual relations, however the white male power was not threatened by exploiting black women nor by a black woman having their baby (Childs, 2005). I n contrast, a white woman who gave birth to a black man’s baby, would be considered polluting the purity of the white race; thereby including racial boundaries and the power of white man (Childs, 2005). Irony as times progressed in 1993, there were 246,000 black-white marriages an 163,000 of these were between black men and white women (Childs, 2005). Interracial dating has been considered as unacceptable, and as times has passed, numerous of people have come to accept the relationships of people withShow MoreRelatedMarketing Research23689 Words   |  95 Pagesindustry? A. Marketing Research Association The marketing research industry has a certification program for marketing researchers and this certification program is hosted by: D. Marketing Research Association (MRA) Which of the following best illustrates the Service-Dominant Logic for Marketing? A. Decision makers should know their firms core competencies. One of the implications discussed by your textbook authors is that the Service Dominant Logic for Marketing means: A. thatRead MoreInnovators Dna84615 Words   |  339 PagesMarriott School, Brigham Young University. He is widely published in strategy and business journals and was the fourth most cited management scholar from 1996–2006. is a professor of leadership at INSEAD. He consults to organizations around the world on innovation, globalization, and transformation and has published extensively in leading academic and business journals. is the Robert and Jane Cizik Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School and the architect of andRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pagesand permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290. Many of the designations by manufacturersRead MoreStrategic Marketing Management337596 Words   |  1351 PagesUniversity AMSTERDAM †¢ BOSTON †¢ HEIDELBERG †¢ LONDON †¢ NEW YORK †¢ OXFORD PARIS †¢ SAN DIEGO †¢ SAN FRANCISCO †¢ SINGAPORE †¢ SYDNEY †¢ TOKYO Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 200 Wheeler Road, Burlington, MA 01803 First published 1992 Second edition 1997 Reprinted 1998, 1999, 2001, 2003 Third edition 2005 Copyright  © 1992, 1997, 2005, Richard M.S. Wilson and Colin Gilligan. All rights reserved The right of Richard M.S. Wilson and Colin Gilligan to be identified as